Yoania prainii is the only species of the genus known from the Himalaya, whereas most sister species are only known from Japan. It was described by King & Pantling (1898) from Choongthang and Naga Hills, Sikkim in India at around 2.000 m a.s.l.. It can be distinguisehd from other species of the genus by the numerous small, densely imbricated scales on the rhizome, by its colourless flowers, round 5-nerved petals and glabrous, spurless, non-carunculated, beardless labellum.
Yoania amagiensis was described by Nakai & Maekawa (1931) from Mount Amagi, Idzu province in Central Japan. It is very closely related to Yoania japonica, but is distinguished from this species by its complicatedly branched rhizome, more numerous flowers (6-11) on the raceme, longer-stalked yellowish-brown flowers, ovate petals, long and densely bearded labellum, and longer ovaries.
Yoania flava was described by Inoue & Yukawa (2002) from Southern Nagano, Central Japan. The examined specimens were formerly identified as Yoania amagiensis from Honshu, Nagano about 1.400 m a.s.l.. The authors recognized differences in flower colour and flower posture. Furthermore the patent flowers stronger resemble those of Yoania japonica.
Mycoheterotrophic plant species (MHP, Leake 1994) lack chlorophyll and depend on their mycorrhizal fungus for carbon and nutrient supply. MHP were first counted by Johow (1889), who estimated 160 species of “achlorophyllous humus plants” in 43 genera and 5 families. Schmucker (1959) already counted 352 “holosaprophytic” species in 48 genera and 6 families. Furman and Trappe (1971) referred to “roughly 400 species”, 50 genera and 7 families. In an review on MHPs Leake (1994) lists 417 MHP species in 87 genera and 11 families. My own preliminary reassessment of Leake's list in 2008 resulted in 438 species/84 genera/10 families, but was just a rough estimate. The most recent assessment is of Merckx (2013) in his introducing chapter to the first book exclusively dedicated to MHP: Mycoheterotrophy - The Biology of Plants living on Fungi. On page 9 he says: "At least 514 species of angiosperms and a single liverwort species entirely depend on fungal carbon during their complete life cycle". This website aims to set up a list of all mycoheterotrophic plants on earth, combined with additional informations such as synonymy, taxonomic history and a bibliography. So far, the list of accepted species with taxonomic comments as well as synonyms are complete except for Orchidaceae. Under the flag 'Mycoheterotrophic Plants' you find a taxonomic tree, where synonyms appear ahead of the accepted tax, each in alphabetic order. The bibliography (about 1400 references) collects the bibliographic data of the taxonomic literature mentioned up to now, as well as other articles dealing with all aspects of mycoheterotrophic plants. The citations in the taxonomic comments (pages) are hyperlinked with the bibliographic data. You find the taxonomic comments under the flag 'Descriptions' when choosing a species name in the taxonomy 'Mycoheterotrophic Plants'.
To the date of 24th of February 2021 this list enumerates 2 families/2 genera/4 species of Bryophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 6 families/28 genera/277 species of non-orchid monocots, and 3 families/17 genera/48 species of eudicots. This sums up to 12 families/48 genera/330 species of non-orchid mycoheterotrophic plants. Dictyostega orobanchoides, Hypopitys monotropa, Voyria aurantiaca, and V. corymbosa are subdivided in subspecies, Afrothismia winkleri, Monotropastrum humile, Sciaphila yakushimensis and Thismia hexagona have one variety each, and Epirixanthes papuana as well as E. elongatata have a form alba, respectively. I added more specific statistics under the flag 'Desriptions' of each family.
Aditionally, 21 genera and 106 species of mycoheterotrophic orchids are listed, however, this is far from being complete.
The criterium to be included in this list is "optical achlorophylly" or at least nearly such. We are aware of intergrading dependences on the mycorrhizal fungus even in green plants (see the pages The case of "Pyrola aphylla", Obolaria and Bartonia or Stemona aphylla), as well as of different amounts of chlorophyll content, which often is even hidden by other colouring compounds.
- The prothallus of Lycopodium clavatum L.
- The case of "Pyrola aphylla" (Pyrola picta)
- Mycoheterotrophy - An Introduction
- Polyphyly of mycoheterotrophic orchids and functional influences on floral and molecular characters
- Rhizanthella omissa, a new species of underground orchid from south eastern Australia.
- Thismia belumensis Siti-Munirah & Suhaimi-Miloko 2021
- The orchids of Vietnam illustrated survey - Part 2: Subfamily Orchidoideae
- Thismia belumensis (Thismiaceae), a remarkable new species from The Royal Belum State Park, Gerik, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia
- Phylogenetics of the mycoheterotrophic genus Thismia (Thismiaceae: Dioscoreales) with a focus on the Old World taxa: delineation of novel natural groups and insights into the evolution of morphological traits
- Floral structure in Thismia (Thismiaceae: Dioscoreales): new insights from anatomy, vasculature and development