For long, Monotropsis odorata has been considered to be only species in the genus, despite several synonyms. In a more recent investigation Rose and Freudenstein (2014) argued for the species distinction of Monotropsis reynoldsiae, which differs morphometrically, phenologically, genetically and geographically from M. odorata. Other specimen, tagged with Monotropsis lehmaniae, are realized by Rose and Freudenstein (2014) as immature M.
First described by Beccari (1890) as Sciaphila arfakiana on page 337, one page earlier than S. crinita, to which it is synonymous according to van de Meerendonk (1984). S. arfakiana is used by Tsukaya & Okada (2013), when providing a key for the Sciaphila species in Borneo. Accepted also by the online checklist of Govaerts, Maas-van de Kamer and Maas (2016, search for Triuridaceae). Some reasoning on the acceptance vs.
This species is described by Xu et al. (2011) from Jianfengling National Reserve in Hainan/China. It differs from other Sciaphila species by their lanceolate fertile bracts and an up to 1.5 mm long style, conspicuously exceding the ovary.
Sciaphila alba is described by Tsukaya and Suetsugu (2014) from Lambir Hills National Park in northwest Borneo, Sarawak/Malaysia. It differs from its relatives in the section Oliganthera subsection Quadrilobatae by much larger and purely white flowers.
- The case of "Pyrola aphylla" (Pyrola picta)
- The prothallus of Lycopodium clavatum L.
- Thismia arachnites Ridley
- Polyphyly of mycoheterotrophic orchids and functional influences on floral and molecular characters
- Seychellaria barbata (Triuridaceae), a new species from Marojejy National Park, Madagascar
- Hypopitys monotropa Crantz
- Mankyua (Ophioglossaceae): a new fern genus from Cheju Island, Korea
- Rhizanthella omissa, a new species of underground orchid from south eastern Australia.
- Florae indicae enumeratio: Monocotyledonae
- Symbiotic germination of seeds of terrestrial orchids of North America and Europe
Mycoheterotrophic plant species (MHP, Leake 1994) lack chlorophyll and depend on their mycorrhizal fungus for carbon and nutrient supply. MHP were first counted by Johow (1889), who estimated 160 species of “achlorophyllous humus plants” in 43 genera and 5 families. Schmucker (1959) already counted 352 “holosaprophytic” species in 48 genera and 6 families. Furman and Trappe (1971) referred to “roughly 400 species”, 50 genera and 7 families. In an review on MHPs (Leake 1994) lists 417 MHP species in 87 genera and 11 families. My own preliminary reassessment of Leake's list in 2008 resulted in 438 species/84 genera/10 families, but was just a rough estimate. The most recent assessment is of Merckx (2013) in his introducing chapter to the first book exclusively dedicated to MHP: Mycoheterotrophy - The Biology of Plants living on Fungi. On page 9 he says: "At least 514 species of angiosperms and a single liverwort species entirely depend on fungal carbon during their complete life cycle". This website aims to set up a list of all mycoheterotrophic plants on earth, combined with additional informations such as synonymy, pictures and a bibliography. So far, the list of accepted species with taxonomic comments as well as synonyms (listed above the accepted taxa, both in alphabetic order) are complete except for Orchidaceae. The bibliography (almost 1300 references) collects the bibliographic data of the taxonomic literature mentioned up to now, as well as other articles dealing with all aspects of mycoheterotrophic plants. The citations in the taxonomic comments (pages) are hyperlinked with the bibliographic data. You find the taxonomic comments under the flag 'Descriptions' when choosing a species name in the taxonomy 'Mycoheterotrophic Plants'.
According to this list 48 non-orchid genera contain mycoheterotrophic species, and 280 non-orchid species are mycoheterotrophic. Dictyostega orobanchoides, Hypopitys monotropa, Voyria aurantiaca, and V. corymbosa are subdivided in subspecies, Afrothismia winkleri, Monotropastrum humile, and Thismia hexagona have one variety each, and Epirixanthes papuana as well as E. elongatata have a form alba, respectively. Aditionally, 20 genera and 75 species of mycoheterotrophic orchids are listed, however, this is far from being complete.
The criterium to be included in this list is "optical achlorophylly" or at least nearly such. We are aware of intergrading dependences on the mycorrhizal fungus even in green plants (see the pages The case of "Pyrola aphylla", Obolaria and Bartonia or Stemona aphylla), as well as of different amounts of chlorophyll content, which often is even hidden by other colouring compounds.