Sciaphila lambirensis is described in Suetsugu (2018), collected from Lambir Hills National Park in Sarwak/Malaysia. It is similar to Sciaphila brevistylis due to the equal perianth lobes with hairy knobs at the apices. It differs, however, by the flowers orientated to one side of the inflorescence and long pedicels slightly nodded.
The holotype of Oxygyne frankei, collected in 1928 by a pastor named Charles Tisserand (Tisserand 2623) 40 km north of Bambari/Central Arfican Republic, has long been stored in the private collection of Georges le Testu, misidentified as a parasitic flowering plant, namely Hydnora sp. (Hydnoraceae). After his death, le Testus collection went to the Herbarium of the British Museum of Natural History/London. In 1983, Luis Diego Gomez Pignataro, an ecologist from Costa Rica, made the annotation "Thismia intermedia sp. nov. Holotypus" to the sheet.
The holotype of Oxygyne duncanii was collected in 1992 already, from an area between Mount Cameroon and Mount Etinde in Cameroon. Since then it was denoted as Oxygyne sp. nov. until Cheek et al. (2018) described it. It is unique having two globose structures beneath each filament insertion into the perianth tube. It also differs from all other Oxygyne species by an erect appandage on the adaxial surface of each perianth lobe as well as the triangular stigmatic knob.
Mycoheterotrophic plant species (MHP, Leake 1994) lack chlorophyll and depend on their mycorrhizal fungus for carbon and nutrient supply. MHP were first counted by Johow (1889), who estimated 160 species of “achlorophyllous humus plants” in 43 genera and 5 families. Schmucker (1959) already counted 352 “holosaprophytic” species in 48 genera and 6 families. Furman and Trappe (1971) referred to “roughly 400 species”, 50 genera and 7 families. In an review on MHPs Leake (1994) lists 417 MHP species in 87 genera and 11 families. My own preliminary reassessment of Leake's list in 2008 resulted in 438 species/84 genera/10 families, but was just a rough estimate. The most recent assessment is of Merckx (2013) in his introducing chapter to the first book exclusively dedicated to MHP: Mycoheterotrophy - The Biology of Plants living on Fungi. On page 9 he says: "At least 514 species of angiosperms and a single liverwort species entirely depend on fungal carbon during their complete life cycle". This website aims to set up a list of all mycoheterotrophic plants on earth, combined with additional informations such as synonymy, taxonomic history and a bibliography. So far, the list of accepted species with taxonomic comments as well as synonyms (listed above the accepted taxa, both in alphabetic order) are complete except for Orchidaceae. The bibliography (1391 references) collects the bibliographic data of the taxonomic literature mentioned up to now, as well as other articles dealing with all aspects of mycoheterotrophic plants. The citations in the taxonomic comments (pages) are hyperlinked with the bibliographic data. You find the taxonomic comments under the flag 'Descriptions' when choosing a species name in the taxonomy 'Mycoheterotrophic Plants'.
To the date of 21st of February 2020 this list enumerates 2 families/2 genera/4 species of Bryophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 6 families/28 genera/255 species of non-orchid monocots, and 3 families/17 genera/47 species of eudicots. This sums up to 12 families/48 genera/306 species of non-orchid mycoheterotrophic plants. Dictyostega orobanchoides, Hypopitys monotropa, Voyria aurantiaca, and V. corymbosa are subdivided in subspecies, Afrothismia winkleri, Monotropastrum humile, and Thismia hexagona have one variety each, and Epirixanthes papuana as well as E. elongatata have a form alba, respectively. I added more specific statistics in the 'Desriptions' of each family.
Aditionally, 21 genera and 106 species of mycoheterotrophic orchids are listed, however, this is far from being complete.
The criterium to be included in this list is "optical achlorophylly" or at least nearly such. We are aware of intergrading dependences on the mycorrhizal fungus even in green plants (see the pages The case of "Pyrola aphylla", Obolaria and Bartonia or Stemona aphylla), as well as of different amounts of chlorophyll content, which often is even hidden by other colouring compounds.
- The prothallus of Lycopodium clavatum L.
- The case of "Pyrola aphylla" (Pyrola picta)
- Mycoheterotrophy - An Introduction
- Polyphyly of mycoheterotrophic orchids and functional influences on floral and molecular characters
- Rhizanthella omissa, a new species of underground orchid from south eastern Australia.
- Monotropa uniflora plants of eastern Massachusetts form mycorrhizae with a diversity of russulacean fungi
- Structural features of mycorrhizal associations in two members of the Monotropoideae, Monotropa uniflora and Pterospora andromedea
- The evolutionary ecology of myco-heterotrophy
- Mycoheterotrophy - An Introduction
- Taxonomy of Exochaenium and Lagenias: two resurrected genera of tribe Exaceae (Gentianaceae)