Mycoheterotrophic Plants

How many of them are there?


Mycoheterotrophic plant species (MHP, Leake 1994) lack chlorophyll and depend on their mycorrhizal fungus for carbon and nutrient supply. MHP were first counted by Johow (1889), who estimated 160 species of “achlorophyllous humus plants” in 43 genera and 5 families. Schmucker (1959) already counted 352 “holosaprophytic” species in 48 genera and 6 families. Furman and Trappe (1971) referred to “roughly 400 species”, 50 genera and 7 families. In an review on MHPs Leake (1994) lists 417 MHP species in 87 genera and 11 families. My own preliminary reassessment of Leake's list in 2008 resulted in 438 species/84 genera/10 families, but was just a rough estimate. The most recent assessment is of Merckx (2013) in his introducing chapter to the first book exclusively dedicated to MHP: Mycoheterotrophy - The Biology of Plants living on Fungi. On page 9 he says: "At least 514 species of angiosperms and a single liverwort species entirely depend on fungal carbon during their complete life cycle". This website aims to set up a list of all mycoheterotrophic plants on earth, combined with additional informations such as synonymy, taxonomic history and a bibliography. So far, the list of accepted species with taxonomic comments as well as synonyms are complete except for Orchidaceae. Under the flag 'Mycoheterotrophic Plants' you find a taxonomic tree, where synonyms appear ahead of the accepted tax, each in alphabetic order. The bibliography (about 1400 references) collects the bibliographic data of the taxonomic literature mentioned up to now, as well as other articles dealing with all aspects of mycoheterotrophic plants. The citations in the taxonomic comments (pages) are hyperlinked with the bibliographic data. You find the taxonomic comments under the flag 'Descriptions' when choosing a species name in the taxonomy 'Mycoheterotrophic Plants'.
To the date of 28th of January 2022 this list enumerates 2 families/2 genera/4 species of Bryophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 6 families/26 genera/279 species of non-orchid monocots, and 3 families/17 genera/48 species of eudicots. This sums up to 12 families/46 genera/331 species of non-orchid mycoheterotrophic plants. I added more specific genera statistics under the flag 'Desriptions', when you access the according family in the phylogenetic tree. Dictyostega orobanchoides, Hypopitys monotropa, Voyria aurantiaca, and V. corymbosa are subdivided in subspecies, Afrothismia winkleri, Monotropastrum humile, Sciaphila yakushimensis and Thismia hexagona have one variety each, and Epirixanthes papuana as well as E. elongatata have a form alba, respectively. 

Aditionally, a growing nuber of genera and species of mycoheterotrophic orchids are listed, however, this is not yet complete.

The criterium to be included in this list is "optical achlorophylly" or at least nearly such. We are aware of intergrading dependences on the mycorrhizal fungus even in green plants (see the pages The case of "Pyrola aphylla", Obolaria and Bartonia or Stemona aphylla), as well as of different amounts of chlorophyll content, which often is even hidden by other colouring compounds.

If you want to cite this website I suggest the following pattern: Imhof, S. (year accessed): Mycoheterotrophic plants - How many of them are there? Accessed at on date xx.xx.20xx.

If you want to cite a particular page/article I suggest: 'Author of the article' (year of the article): 'Title of the article'. In: Imhof, S. (year accessed), Mycoheterotrophic plants - How many of them are there? Accessed at on date xx.xx.20xx.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith